Fix Android Froyo (2.2) AAC+ / HE-AAC not decoding SBR part (rooted phone)

AAC+ or HE-AAC files' SBR bits are not decoded in Froyo with the introduction of "stagefright".

Easy fix with rooted phone:

fakeraid, dmraid are evil!

If you use software raid (md) and have a fakeraid controller (controlled by dm-raid), make sure to *never* install dmraid. It will kill your data.

There seem to be the kernel command line parameters preventing data loss...
noacpi nodmraid

Count the number of files in each subdirectory

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d | while read i; do echo "`find \"$i\" -type f | wc -l` $i"; done | sort -g

DVB-T initial tuning data für das Saarland

Heute mal ein Beitrag auf deutsch. Da es um den lokalen Empfang von DVB-T geht, dürfte das den (englischsprachigen) Rest der Welt sowieso nicht interessieren.

Da ich keine "initial tuning data" Datei für das Saarland im Netz finden konnte, hier mal eine Anleitung wie man sich diese selbst herstellt:

Erst mal schauen, wie so eine Datei aussehen muss. Am schnellsten geht das bei installierten dvb-utils am Beispiel von Berlin:

cat /usr/share/doc/dvb-utils/examples/scan/dvb-t/de-Berlin
# T freq bw fec_hi fec_lo mod transmission-mode guard-interval hierarchy

Die benötigten Daten entnimmt man nun folgendem Dokument:

Auf der letzten Seite steht also:
Es gibt vier Kanäle, alle werden mit 16-QAM moduliert, haben eine Fehlerschutzrate (FEC) von 2/3 (33% Redundanz), 1/4 ist die Länge des guard interval und die Polarisation ist sinnvollerweise immer vertikal.

Die Frequenzen der vier Kanäle sind dann noch der Tabelle zu entnehmen:
K 42: 642MHz
K 44: 658MHz
K 30: 546MHz
K 49: 698MHz

Es sollte sich also (ungetestet!) folgende tuning-Datei ergeben:

# T freq bw fec_hi fec_lo mod transmission-mode guard-interval hierarchy
T 642000000 8MHz 2/3 NONE QAM16 8k 1/4 NONE # K42: SR, ARD, Phoenix, Arte
T 658000000 8MHz 2/3 NONE QAM16 8k 1/4 NONE # K44: BR, HR, SWR, WDR
T 546000000 8MHz 2/3 NONE QAM16 8k 1/4 NONE # K30: ZDF(+doku+info), 3Sat, KiKa
T 698000000 8MHz 2/3 NONE QAM16 8k 1/4 NONE # K49: SaarTV, T5, QVC,

Da die Kanäle alle im UHF-Bereich liegen, ist die Kanalbandbreite jeweils 8MHz, wie z.B. in [1] angegeben.

Jetzt den Suchlauf starten:

scan de-Saarland > channels.conf

Wer es damit ausprobiert kann gerne hier eine Nachricht hinterlassen, ob es funktioniert hat.


GDM autologin when USB stick present, else not

Today I figured it would be a nice idea to increase bootup speed by doing autologin with GDM, which is nothing spectacular, you can just do it.
BUT: What if this machine is used by others from time to time and you don't want someone else to boot the machine and be logged in with your account?
What I find on the net are solutions on how to use pam_usb to save you from entering your password while your USB stick is plugged in. But in my case, for the initial boot of the machine I'm working with, I'd even like to not be asked for my username - but of course only if my USB stick is present.

How to do this is straightforward:
  1. Install and configure pam_usb
  2. Set up your USB stick for authentication
  3. Set the GDM autologin feature to use your username
  4. Modify pam for gdm-autologin to "look for" your USB stick
This results in getting an error and being prompted with username/password dialog of GDM in case your USB stick is not present, but when it is, you're logged in automatically.

Following the quickstart guide on
# apt-get install libpam-usb pamusb-tools
# pamusb-conf --add-device MyDevice
# pamusb-conf --add-user john

Now, to use pam_usb as a "common" access module, follow the quickstart guide. In our case, this would be optional. If you still need this feature, add
auth    sufficient
auth    required nullok_secure
in /etc/pam.d/common-auth.

For what is intended here, it suffices to replace
auth    required
auth    sufficient
in /etc/pam.d/gdm-autologin

Which does exactly what we want to achieve: replacing the "always permit" module by the pam_usb module.

Finally, don't forget to actually enable autologin and you're done!

So my day in the office now begins like this: Enter office, switch on my workstation, insert usb stick during boot, grab some (free) coffee, return and I'm welcomed by the desktop instead of the login prompt!

EDIT: If your stick can not be mounted after reboot by pmount (pmount -d /dev/sdxn) or you get an error "device not removable" issuing pamusb-check --debug then you can add your device to /etc/pamusb.

Find all manually installed deb packages

inverse of "deborphan" and better than dpkg --get-selections

aptitude search '~i!~E' | grep -v "i A" | cut -d " " -f 4

Split lossless audio CD images (ape, flac, etc.)

Derived from [1], but a little bit better:
# usage: $1: cue file, $2: audio file (e.g. .ape) $3: format (e.g. flac)
shnsplit -f $1 -o $3 -t %n-%t $2
for i in *.$3; do mv "$i" "`echo $i | sed -e 's/ /_/g'`"; done
cuetag $1 *.$3


Find out who is accessing the current directory with lsof

Is there a more simple alternative to this?

lsof -FL -O -L -n +D . | grep -v "^p" | cut -dL -f 2 | less | sort -u

Remove content from svn repository (permanent, with history)

svnadmin create <repos_copy>
svnadmin dump <repos> | svndumpfilter exclude <path> | svnadmin load <repos_copy>

bash completion

compgen -A action -- <pattern>

-A action
The action may be one of the following to generate a list of possible
alias Alias names. May also be specified as -a.
Array variable names.
binding Readline key binding names.
builtin Names of shell builtin commands. May also be specified as -b.
command Command names. May also be specified as -c.
Directory names. May also be specified as -d.
Names of disabled shell builtins.
enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
export Names of exported shell variables. May also be specified as
file File names. May also be specified as -f.
Names of shell functions.
group Group names. May also be specified as -g.
Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
Hostnames, as taken from the file specified by the HOSTFILE
shell variable.
job Job names, if job control is active. May also be specified as
keyword Shell reserved words. May also be specified as -k.
running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
service Service names. May also be specified as -s.
setopt Valid arguments for the -o option to the set builtin.
shopt Shell option names as accepted by the shopt builtin.
signal Signal names.
stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
user User names. May also be specified as -u.
Names of all shell variables. May also be specified as -v.

Find files that have been modified within the last n minutes

As usual, it took a while to figure this out. It's an easy task using find. But let find also exclude some directories and print something nice, it gets complicated.

Therefore, here's how...
" find all files that have been modified under the current directory within the last n minutes excluding a couple of directories and printing the last modification timestamp along with the filename by only using the find command"

find -H . -cmin -$n -and \(wholename './proc/*' -prune -o wholename './sys/*' -prune -o wholename './dev/*' -prune -o printf "%p\t%c\n" \)

And what happens is this:
The whole expression reads like this:
find files with some cmin and (if filename matches ... then skip else if filename matches ... then skip else ... else print)

How to print cluttered web pages with Firefox and Aardvark

This might come in handy:
Start trimming down the page to your gusto
Then, select "Start Aardvark" again to stop it (as you used to do with Windows, remeber?). Now, you can print the page or create a PDF out of it in case you have a PDF printer driver (CUPS/PDF or FreePDF XP for Windows).

Speed up multiple debian / ubuntu updates with apt-cacher

Today I upgraded from ubuntu 7.04 to 7.10, and it was 1.4GB. This is a lot, even with fast DSL, given that you will most probably need to do it more than once (desktop, laptop, office etc.). This time I chose to do it more cleverly: using a local cache. Apt-cacher to the rescue. But first, what are the necessary steps?

  1. Have an apache webserver ready
  2. apt-get install apt-cacher on that machine (your server)
  3. Configure apt-cacher (see below)
  4. Configure client machines (see below)

About 1 and 2: Apt-cacher can actually also run in stand-alone mode without the need for an apache server, but I'm not going to cover this here. In fact, I believe that the apache-mode is much nicer (see later).

About 3: Tweak /etc/apt-cacher/apt-cacher.conf to your needs. The default settings are usable out of the box and everything is very well documented in there. Very nice: There is an option for rate limiting and external http proxy configuration (even more redundancy!).

About 4: Now for the easy part: Modify you clients' /etc/apt/sources.list files. Here is how the result should look:

Original line:
deb stable main contrib non-free
Apt-cacher enabled replacement:
deb http://cacheserver/apt-cacher/ stable main contrib non-free


But now for the brain part:
Q: How to do this automagically for all entries with one line of sed?
I have two possible answers for you:

About A:
sudo su
cd /etc/apt
cp sources.list sources.list.pre-caching
export APTCACHER=""
sed -i "s/\(http:\/\/\)\([^\/]*\)\//\1$APTCACHER\/apt-cacher\/\2\//" sources.list

About B:
Same as A, but
sed -i "/^[^#]/h;s/\(http:\/\/\)\([^\/]*\)\//\1$APTCACHER\/apt-cacher\/\2\//;/^[^#]/{x;p;x}" sources.list

Note that it is not a good idea to execute the sed commands more than once!

For the curious:
Explanation of the regular expression in A:
Explanation of the regular expression in B:
I like regular expressions.

tshark statistics with filters problem

After several hours I finally found out how to use those tshark statistics filters with the -z option. I couldn't find any clues in the documentation or on the net though, just found the solution by accident...

Even the example from the man page:
  -z 'io,stat,1,ip.addr=='
may not work!

What can happen is that the comma after the time value "1" is interpreted as the decimal delimiter, for a german locales setting for example, so the rest of the filter string is omitted.

Another example would be writing
  -z io,stat,0.001,ip.addr==
where tshark will complain that the time value must be >= 0.001, but in this case it really is = 0.001 (one might think).

Either do
export LANG=C
before or write something like this instead:
  -z io,stat,"0,001",ip.addr==

Intel piix, ata_piix battle for hard disk and cdrom drive

For kernels until 2.6.17 and maybe later the ata_piix controller may detect the cdrom / dvd drive but does not assign a driver letter to it. On the other hand the piix controller may detect the sata hard disk but can not use it.

Cause of the problem:
The ide controller is either handeled by the piix module or the sata_piix module. The module that is loaded first will grab the controller exclusively.

Either make sure piix is loaded before sata_piix and hope your hard disk still works.
Or load the experimental sata atapi code by loading the libata module with the parameter atapi_enabled=1.

To do the latter you can either try to set "options libata atapi_enabled=1" in /etc/modules.conf or modify the initrd image (necessary for debian) by loading the module directly with the parameter. Add
libata atapi_enabled=1
to /etc/mkinitrd/modules. After that re-create the initrd via
mkinitrd /boot/initrd.img-`uname -r`
Make sure the original initrd has been replaced. Another possibility would be modifying the kernel parameter line in /boot/grub/menu.list by adding
ide1=noprobe libata.atapi_enabled=1
This should also be possible with a new installation of debian or ubuntu where the cdrom is not detected and the installation fails.

VMware Player fails to start with libgnomevfs-WARNING

Symbolic links in samba shares

Problem: When you create a symbolic link inside a samba share, everything is fine when browsing the share in Windows. In Linux though, the symbolic links may be treated as links to the local filesystem, which will not work.

I don't really understand why this is the default samba behaviour, but you can disable it by setting "unix extensions" to "no" on the server for this particular share or globally.

Login in Xnest nested window

gdmflexiserver --xnest

Build debian package from planner 0.14.1 source

From this article I just learned how to build a debian package. In my case I built a package from the latest gnome/imendio planner source (0.14.1). After unpacking the tarball the following steps were necessary:
[1] The following packages may be necessary:
dh-make libglade2-dev libgnomecanvas2-dev libgconf2-dev libgnomeprintui2.2-dev libgnomeui-dev libgnomevfs2-dev libxslt1-dev


Compile and create debian package from source

Compile from source and create debian package
sudo apt-get -b source wavemon
Or, if you downloaded the source archive, do
dh_make -n -s -e <email>
debian/rules binary

Subversion authz pitfall

Using SVNPath and SVNParentPath together with AuthzSVNAccessFile has to be configured slightly different:

<location /projects/bob>
DAV svn
SVNPath /var/svn/public/projects/bob
AuthzSVNAccessFile /home/bob/svnaccess.conf

<location /projects/>
DAV svn
SVNParentPath /var/svn/public/projects
AuthzSVNAccessFile /home/bob/svnaccess.conf

Note the trailing slash in the location block in the second example.
If there was a trailing slash in the first example, dav_svn would not work at all (SSL error).

Now let's mix both things:
<location /projects>
DAV svn
SVNParentPath /var/svn/public/projects

<location /projects/bob>
AuthzSVNAccessFile /home/bob/svnaccess.conf

Here dav_svn will work, but authz will not work as expected.
The problem is that authz is defined "later", i.e. one path level deeper than DAV svn. Subversion's authz does in my opinion not correctly determine the actual repository in this case. It sees /projects/bob ("bob" is the repository name) as the parent path and treats subdirectories of "bob" as repository names.

Restricting access to subdirectories of "bob" would now be done in the following way:
someone = r

While the following which should be how it's done will not work:

someone = r

I am using the following Subversion and Apache versions:
Apache/2.0.54 (Debian GNU/Linux) DAV/2 SVN/1.3.2

Multiple http file upload with JavaScript

Definitely worth a look:

How to resume another user's screen session

It's so easy yet it took me quite a while to 'google' it out.

The problem: Being root you would like to resume another user's screen session. Let the user be A.

You 'become' him by
su A -
Then you would like to
screen -r
but unfortunately this gives you an error:
Cannot open your terminal '/dev/pts/0' - please check.
or something similar. The simple cause is that user A does not have the right to write into your (root's) terminal. This can be fixed by chmod'ing the above displayed file. For example:
chmod a+rwx /dev/pts/0
Do it as root and be aware that this is a severe security risk!

How to change subversion mime-type

When you have e.g. an html file inside your repository and you want it to be displayed in your browers correctly, i.e. as html and not as plain text, this is what you need to do:

One needs to properly set the mime-type to "text/html".

Checkout the repository and do the following:
svn propedit svn:mime-type yourfile.html --editor-cmd vi
Here, vi is used as the editor.
enter "text/html", save and exit (:wq for vi)
Check if mime-type was changed
svn -R proplist
svn commit

How to install Sun Java on Debian

First download Sun Java J2SE Development Kit from
Filename should be something like jdk-1_5_0_07-linux-i586.bin
Short version:
apt-get install java-package
fakeroot make-jpkg .bin
dpkg -i .deb

Combine multiple PDF files

It's also possible to insert a pdf file into another. For example, I had to insert one page from a pdf file after page 2 of another pdf file. This is how it's done:
pdftk A=file1.pdf B=file2.pdf cat A1-2 B1 A2-end output combined.pdf verbose
So the output results in pages 1,2 from A followed by page 1 from B and then the rest of A.

Debian security GPG key

LaTeX: Change spacing of itemize, enum, description

Link to original post (french)

Here is what I did:
\let\orig@Itemize =\itemize


There is no Groupware for me

I want to know if there is a Groupware (or, at least, something that is not called Groupware but does what I want) which has the following features:

  1. Beautiful, efficient and comfortable web-interface
  2. Low resource usage (server RAM and CPU)
  3. Calendar is iCal/WebDAV accessible
  4. Contacts are LDAP or (even better) WebDAV accesible (GroupDAV, what are you?)
  5. Uses Mozilla Thunderbird as client (it's nice and portable)
  6. Can synchronize contacts and calendar with cellular phone (syncML)

Gnome "Open with" customization

If you added an entry to the "Open with" menu of nautilus (i.e. Gnome file-manager), you currently can not customize the string that is displayed. Maybe you added two entries "xmms" and "xmms -e" (enqueue) for mp3-files. Then both will show up as "xmms" in the "Open with" menu. Thats odd, but customization is possible even though the Gnome makers keep hiding interesting options like that. (Maybe Linus is right about KDE/Gnome? - but then... Gnome is still much more beautiful...)
Having said that, here's the obscure location where nautilus stores your custom "Open with" entries:

Mozilla Firefox gxine wmv plugin

  1. Install gxine
  2. Install w32codecs (google for it)
  3. Create symbolic links to the following files in your Mozilla plugins directory (could be ~/.mozilla/plugins): gxineplugin.a (might be under /usr/lib/gxine)
    This crashed frequently. Install mozplugger instead!
  4. Delete the pluginreg.dat
  5. Add the following to /etc/mozpluggerrc or modify anything similar to
    application/x-mplayer2: wmv,asf,mov: Windows Media
    video/x-ms-asf: asf,asx,wma,wax,wmv,wvx: Windows Media
    video/x-ms-wmv: wmv: Windows Media
    stream noisy ignore_errors: gxine "$file"
  6. Start Firefox, Quit Firefox -> pluginreg.dat was re-created
  7. Done
Note: The lines above may already be present but pointing to mplayer. So if you have mplayer installed you need to modify only the last line (i.e. the command to be executed).

Medion MD 41300 WLAN

If you have never really got your WLAN to work on your Medion MD 41300 laptop as I have then there is good news: I finally found some drivers from another vendor that work for the integrated Intersil PRISM wireless nic. (downloads at the bottom)

In the device manager the card showed up as
PRISM 802.11g Wireless Adapter (3890)
with the driver supplied by Medion. Actually this driver never worked for me since the wireless LAN card always stopped functioning after a couple of minutes. Only a reboot could bring it back. The interesing thing was though that the card worked perfectly with linux+ndiswrapper+SMC drivers. Unfortunately the SMC drivers would not install under Windows XP.

Here is a summary of driver, firmware and utility (prismsta.exe) versions

From Medion the latest you can get is:
DriverVer = 08/26/2003,
Firmware unknown
Utility version 1.00.20

From SMC you can get the following
DriverVer = 04/29/2004,
Firmware 2.05.03
Note1: No prismsta.exe utility included. Included SMC utility didn't work for me.
Note2: The firmware seems to be included in the driver (.sys file)

From MPC corp. you get the following
DriverVer = 03/21/2002, 1.7.37
Firmware unkown
Utility version 1.07.37

So one can create a driver bundle with the SMC driver, the MPC inf file and the MPC utility.

Here's what you need to do:
1. Download the SMC driver here
2. Download the MPC driver here
3. Exchange the MPC PRISMNDS.SYS (50k) in the WinXP subfolder by the SMC 2802W51.sys (377k) (delete the PRISMNDS.SYS and rename the SMC one)
4. Update the driver of your wlan card with this new driver package. Windows will refuse to do so unless you explicitly do "manually choose driver" and "have disk". A non-certification message should apper and you're done.

For me this works like a charm. Do it at your own risk. For questions use the comments function.

Edit: Some people left comments that the MPC driver is not there anymore. Actually, I have just been able to download it. I can't figure out why for some people the link should be broken, but I also just found out that MPC has an FTP:
Edit2: Actually no one complained, yet, but the MPC driver comes as a self-deflating .exe file. To access it, just open it with your favourite zip utility (or, let it deflate and cancel the installation)

LaTeX and PDF

Installing the Latin Modern fonts solves the problem that LaTeX's PDF output (pdflatex or ps2pdf) looks like rubbish, i.e. bad font rendering, missing ligatures (lat. ligare - to bind), etc.

apt-get install lmodern

gawk printf float pitfall

I had to use a shell script reading in some values and spitting out some values. Those were to be processed by a binary that hung in an endless loop for an unknown reason. The script used the gawk tool excessively and I figured out that there was a problem with the decimal delimiter, which is different in some countries.

sed -e 's/\./,/g'
replacing dots by commas and afterwards vice versa
sed -e 's/,/\./g'
corrected this problem.

But it turned out that tools like gawk do rely on the locales set for your environment. A setenv LANG C before calling the scripts solved the problem even better. Quoted from the GNU awk User's guide
[...] The locale also affects numeric formats. In particular, for awk programs, it affects the decimal point character. The "C" locale, and most English-language locales, use the period character (`.') as the decimal point. However, many (if not most) European and non-English locales use the comma (`,') as the decimal point character.
So when using gawk make sure to execute
setenv LANG C (ksh-style shell) or
export LANG=C (sh-style shell)
in your script before calling gawk. Otherwise it may not run under different localized environments.

Create new initrd with mkinitrd for Debian kernel

If you are using sata or scsi and your Debian 2.6 stock kernel won’t boot you need to tweak your initrd because with Debian all modules required to boot must be loaded from the initrd. Else the boot process will halt because e.g. the hard disk or other necessary stuff is not accessible.
Edit the file
to contain all the modules you wish to load (e.g. for your sata controller). You can find out which modules you need by doing
on an already running kernel (other kernel version or maybe a live-cd like knoppix). Then you need to run mkinitrd to create the new initrd manually. Here’s an example:
mkinitrd -o /boot/initrd.img-2.6.8-2-386_TEST 2.6.8-2-386
Change the kernel version and the filename to what you need. The kernel version is exactly the directory name under /lib/modules. Next you can check if your changes were applied. Mount the initrd image to a local directory to examine its conents:
cd /boot
mkdir loop
mount -o loop -t cramfs initrd.img-2.6.8-2-386_TEST loop/
cat loop/loadmodules

See the module(s) that you added here? Nice! Now you only need to tell your boot loader to use the new initrd. Edit /boot/grub/menu.lst or /etc/lilo.conf accordingly (with lilo, run lilo before rebooting!).

Calculate the DPI resolution of your display

I needed this when X displayed LyX with huge fonts. You can change the font's DPI setting when using Gnome (I didn't find it immediately): settings...fonts...details (very small button)

or without Gnome/supposedly KDE you can edit your ~/.xsession to execute
xrdb ~/.Xresource
and in the .Xresource you add a line (replace with what you calculated)
Xft*dpi: 85
But at least with gnome the second method does not work because gnome overrides this value with sheer brutality (try the fist method).

Now the brain-part (calculation): Pythagoras' theorem

a^2 + b^2 = c^2

is used to calculate the pixel-diagonal of your screen resolution (c) and c divided by the size of your monitor (screen diagonal in inches) yields the DPI

Example: 1024x768 on 15 inch (in german: "Zoll") screen

sqrt(1024^2 + 768^2) / 15 = ~85 DPI

Google to the rescue! Example calculation for 1280x1024 on 17 inch screen

Network interface speed shell script

A shell script to determine the current throughput of a network interface. Yay!
if test "$dev" = ""
echo "No link specified. Using eth0"

inA=`ip -s link show $dev | tail -n3 | head -n1 | tr -s " " | cut -d" " -f2`
outA=`ip -s link show $dev | tail -n1 | tr -s " " | cut -d" " -f2`
sleep 2
inB=`ip -s link show $dev | tail -n3 | head -n1 | tr -s " " | cut -d" " -f2`
outB=`ip -s link show $dev | tail -n1 | tr -s " " | cut -d" " -f2`
echo "RX: $[(($inB-$inA)*8)/1000] kbps"
echo "TX: $[(($outB-$outA)*8)/1000] kbps"

CPU usage shell script

This three-liner extracts the CPU idle-percentage from vmstat, subtracts it from 100 and stores the result in a file.
Vmstat arguments specify waiting time in seconds and number of captures. I chose {5,2} to be sufficient.

idle=`vmstat -n 5 2 | tail -n 1 | sed -e 's/ \{2,\}/ /g' | cut -d" " -f16`
echo $use >> load

Watch a file while it changes, dmesg example

This is so cool!

watch "dmesg |tail --lines=$(($LINES-4))"

Dump an image to floppy with m-tools

No access to dd? I needed this one on a terminal client (LTSP).

mcat -w a: < image

Extract the essence of .conf

This piece of code displays a .conf file without the rubbish:

cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config | grep -v ^# | sed '/^$/d;'

Apache2 and subversion (DAV-SVN)

Insert this into your apache2 SSL config file to enable subversion. This is the most simple example with user-defined styles and password protection.
<Location /~joe/svn>
DAV svn
SVNParentPath /path/to/subversion
SVNIndexXSLT "/~joe/svnstyle.xsl"

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Joe's subversion repository"
AuthUserFile /path/to/htpasswd
Require user joe

The code is pretty self-explanatory. First lines enable svn, last lines enable security.

Apache2 SSL

1. Create a self-signed certificate: Apache2 comes with the script

Note: It seems not to be documented at all (manpage?), so try --force and --days if your certificate has expired!

2. Create a new server configuration under apache2/sites-available
Listen 443

NameVirtualHost *:443

<VirtualHost *:443>
LoadModule ssl_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/

DocumentRoot /var/swww

SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.pem

ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_error.log

3. Enable the new site
cd /etc/apache2/sites-enabled
ln -s ../sites-available/new-site-name

4. Restart apache2
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

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